What is stack?
First of all, let us see briefly the properties of data structure that is known already. These properties help us to clear the concepts towards the stacks.
Array: An array is a collection of similar data types stored at contiguous memory locations. An array is the simplest form of data structure in which each value can be accessed by using the index number only.
Linked List: A Linked List is a linear data structure in which elements are not stored at contiguous memory locations. A linked list contains a series of nodes. Each node contains a value and a pointer to the next node in the list. ‘
A stack is a linear data structure in which operations are performed in particular orders. These orders are :
- LIFO (Last In First Out)
- FIFO(First In First Out)
You can see many real-life examples of Stacks operation. Let us see an example of plates stacked over one another on the table. When we want to take out one plate from the stack, then the first plate that we take is the top one. All the plates are removed in that order which is an example of Last in First out.
Push operation: Push operation in stacks is an operation to insert an element in the stack. As the new element can only be inserted at only one position ie Top of the stack. The new element will be inserted at the top of the stack.
Pop operation in stacks is an operation to remove an element from the stack. Again, as we can only remove the element that is at the topmost position. So we can remove only one element that is at the top of the stack. We can also return the value of the popped element, but it completely depends on the programmer if he wants to implement this or not.
Peek operations don’t refer to any kind of modification in the stack. This operation only allows the user to see the element at the top of the stack.
IsEmpty: This operation is performed to check if the stack is empty.
If you dont want to perform the operation on an empty stack, the programmer needs to maintain the size of the stack internally. This will be updated during the push and pop operations. isEmpty() returns a boolean value. If the size is 0 it returns the value “True” else “ False”
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